Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (Save girl child, Educate a girl child)

Blog By-

Neeraj Singh Manhas.     

Abstract

Girls play an important role in a country’s cultural, social, political, and economic life. Our constitution places a high value on girls’ equality of status and opportunities. This paper investigates how girls’ education can be improved by disseminating information to all in a variety of meaningful ways. Girls’ education should be prioritised in terms of national development. The BETI PADHAO scheme has been briefly highlighted in this paper BETI BACHAO. The goal of this paper is also to provide some information to all readers about the problems, challenges, and constitutional and legal provisions that apply to girls. According to the national education policy (1986), “education for girls should be prioritised not only for reasons of social justice, but also because it accelerates social transformation.” My paper wishes to emphasise that educated men cannot exist in the absence of educated girls.

Keywords: Girl, Save, Empowerment, Education, Government Schemes.

Introduction

It is a social campaign launched by the Government of India to raise awareness and improve the efficiency of welfare services for girls. This campaign called for the abolition of female foeticide and solicited suggestions from Indian citizens. Prime Minister NARINDER MODI launched the BETI BACHAO BETI PADHAO scheme on 22 January 2015. It is a national initiative co-led by the ministries of girls and child development, health and family welfare, and human resource development to address the issue of declining child sex ratios. According to census data, India’s child sex ratio (0-6 years) was 933 girls for every 1,000 boys in 2001, but it fell to 918 girls for every 1,000 boys in 2011. According to a 2012 UNICEF report, India ranked 41st out of 195 countries. According to the 2011 population census, India’s population ratio is 943 females for every thousand males. The 2011 sex ratio shows an upward trend when compared to the 2001 census data. “When you educate a man, you educate a man,” the saying goes, “but when you educate a woman, you educate a generation.” Beti Bachao-Beti Padhao is a social awareness campaign that encourages parents to celebrate the birth of a baby girl rather than be disappointed. For hundreds of years, Indian families have not rejoiced in the birth of a girl child, not only in rural areas, but also in urban circles. On top of that, orthodox families used to resort to female foeticide or abandoning the girl child, if she was born at all. Due to social and family constraints, the girls were unable to attend school or pursue higher education.

Importance of Girls Education

“Mobilizing the world’s women is the quickest way to change society.” — Malikleo, Charles There are currently 31 million primary school-aged girls who are not enrolled. In Sierra Leone, a girl is more likely to be sexually abused than to attend high school, and one in every nine girls in the developing world marries before the age of 15. There are 4 million more girls than boys who are not in school, and three countries have over a million girls who are not in school. There are 774 million illiterate people in the world, with women constituting two-thirds of the total. To many, these figures are just numbers on a page, but for the 31 million girls, they are a harsh reality. In 2018, statistics like these are incomprehensible and simply unacceptable. Today, we have the resources and the ability to end these realities once and for all, but as a global society, we sit back and let them continue. What makes this possible? According to Amnesty International, you have the right to sit silently by while a fellow human being is persecuted, tortured, oppressed, or abused, as well as the right to speak out. “Now is the time to speak up and fight for our girls’ education.” Education for girls is about so much more than just learning. The benefits of ensuring a girl’s equal access to education, employment, and adequate health care will be passed on to her children (both boys and girls), community, and country.”

If all women in the world received a secondary education, child mortality would be cut in half, saving 3 million lives. Not just the lives of girls, but all of life. “All children are important, they have the same rights and deserve the same opportunities,” says Christina Taylor, Community & Bequests Officer for Plan International. “However, because girls face the double discrimination of being female and young, it is critical that we focus efforts specifically on addressing their disadvantages and systemic abuse.” According to UNESCO, if all women completed secondary school, 12 million children would be spared stunted growth and malnutrition. Given that malnutrition causes nearly half of all deaths in children under the age of five, it is undeniable that we must educate girls who will become mothers. It’s easy to see how a lack of education has a cascading effect on societies. A girl’s education not only provides knowledge, but it also provides her with power and awareness over her own life, which benefits everyone in the long run. According to UNESCO, if all mothers completed primary school, maternal deaths would be cut in half. Every child deserves to grow up with the love and guidance of their parents, and by denying girls’ education, we are increasing the chances of many children growing up without a mother.

People used to bury their daughters alive during the ignorance era, which the Holy Quran strongly condemned. It is completely illegal and haram to abort a foetus when it is four months old unless there is severe compulsion, according to the law. “Islam commands us to treat our daughters well,” it said, adding that there is no Islamic concept of girls bringing misfortune and disrespect. Education is very important in Islam, according to its teachings. According to the Prophet Muhammad, his followers should:

  • “Acquiring knowledge is obligatory on all Muslims, male and female.”
  • “From the cradle to the grave, seek knowledge.”
  • “Acquire knowledge, even if it means travelling to China.”
  • “Whoever goes forth in search of knowledge is striving hard in Allah’s way until his/her return.”

Aims and Objectives

  1. To put an end to sex discrimination against girls and the use of sex determination tests.
  2. To ensure the survival and safety of girls.
  3. To ensure girls’ participation in education and other areas.
  4. Organize a large-scale campaign to advance girls in all fields.
  5. To provide consultancy services in the areas of girls’ education and development;
  6. To act as a catalyst in promoting innovations and progress in girls’ education in the country; and to act as a catalyst in promoting innovations and progress in girls’ education in the country.

Problems Limiting Girls

  1. Rape and Sexual Assault

The sexual exploitation of girls is egregious, but it is symptomatic of society’s ongoing violence. The high rate of rape in India reflects this long-standing issue. These violations intersect with other margins to create a system of violence against girls based on caste, religion, region, or militarization in some of the most horrifying accidents that have come to light.

  1. Dowry Deaths

Even though the Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 prohibits the practice of dowry, the problem persists. We occasionally hear of girls being targeted by their in-laws for non-payment or partial payment of Dowry.

  1. Harassment in public Places

Girls have risen to the forefront of the economy as a result of modern economic change, and they have taken on new roles in business, government, and society. However, workplace violations have emerged as a major issue in the modern era.

  1. Domestic Violence

In India, it has been pointed out that incidents of domestic violence may have reduced but in some contexts, this violence’s have become means of limiting girls at home.

  1. Eve-Teasing

Eve teasing is common in public settings.

 

Some Constitutional and Legal Rights of Girls

  • Article 15 (1) states that the state shall not discriminate against any Indian citizen on the basis of gender.
  • Article 16 (2) states that no citizen shall be discriminated against or be ineligible for any employment or office under the state on the basis of gender.
  • Article 39 (a) requires the state to ensure that men and women have equal access to adequate means of subsistence.
  • The state shall make provisions for just and humane working conditions and maternity leave (article 42).
  • Gender equality before the law (Article 14).
  • The state’s goal is to improve its people’s nutrition and standard of living (Article 47).
  • Article 15 (3) requires the state to make any special provisions in favour of girls and children.
  • The Protection of Girls from Domestic Violence Act (2005) is a comprehensive piece of legislation in India that protects girls from all forms of domestic violence.
  • The Indecent Representation of Girls (Prohibition) Act of 1986 prohibits indecent representation of girls in advertisements, publications, writings, paintings, figures, or any other medium.
  • Dowry prohibition act (1961) prohibits the giving or taking of dowry from girls at any time before or after marriage.
  • The Legal Services Authorities Act (1987) guarantees Indian girls free legal services.
  • The National Commission of a Girl’s Act (1990) established a commission of girls to study and monitor all issues concerning girls’ constitutional and legal rights and safeguards.
  • The Minimum Wage Act of 1952 prohibits discrimination between male and female workers, as well as different minimum wages for them.
  • The Family Courts Act (1984) establishes family courts to expedite the resolution of family disputes.

 

Steps to Improve Education and Rights of a Girl

There are several steps that could be taken in India to improve education and the rights of girls. Increasing awareness is critical in promoting girls’ education in India, or anywhere else in the world for that matter. Individuals and organisations can educate the public about the importance of sending their female children to school and how it will benefit them in the long run. There are numerous ways to raise this awareness. Options include, but are not limited to, using media outlets such as television and radio stations, as well as newspapers and magazines, placing stickers in strategic locations, and going house to house to educate people about the importance of sending their female children to school. The goal would be to reach as many people as possible and provide them with the necessary information to encourage them to educate their children. Another critical means by which girls’ education in India can be carried out is through government policy. Government policies should require parents to send their children to school at a certain age. It should also make primary and secondary education mandatory for all children, regardless of gender. Punishments and sanctions could be imposed on parents who prevent their children from attending school based on this. The sanctions would be useful in forcing parents who do not want to send their children to school, particularly their female children, to do so regardless.

It is necessary to implement programmes and activities that encourage parents to send their children to school. First and foremost, the government could make primary and secondary education free of charge. This would eliminate the excuse of being unable to afford to send such children to school. Other forms of encouragement could include the provision of school uniforms and books for the children, as well as the provision of free meals for the children. The private sector, for example, could assist the government in this regard by covering some of the costs. Prior to the implementation of these programmes, such private establishments could organise scholarship programmes for children, with some of the scholarships specifically aimed at girls’ education in India. This would go a long way toward assisting parents who want to send their children to school but do not have the financial means to do so. Government and private organisations could also provide education loans.

Conclusion

Today’s women are acutely aware of their social, economic, intellectual, mental, and spiritual development. Their role, both inside and outside the home, has become an important feature of the country’s social and economic life. It will grow in importance. As a result, they cannot be denied an education at any cost, and greater attention should be paid to the issues of women’s training and development.

References

  1. K Sandeep Kumar, Rajeev Mullick (19 May 2017). “UP govt sounds alert over BetiBachao Beti Padhao scheme fraud”. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  2. Press Trust of India (28 March 2017). “Haryana govt cautions people against frauds under Beti Bachao-Beti Padhao scheme”. The Indian Express. Retrieved 12 June2017.
  3. “PM Narendra Modi invites ideas on “Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao””. DNA India. 11October 2014. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
  4. “PM to Launch ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ Programme from Haryana”.Newindianexpress.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
  5. “PM Narendra Modi to launch ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ programme fromHaryana”.The Economic Times. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
  6. Mohan, Rohini (30 June 2015). “How PM Modi’s Beti Bachao, Selfie Banao campaign became a rage to rewrite gender-skewed Haryana”. Economic Retrieved 1July 2015.
  7. Sanyal, Anindita 2015). “#SelfieWithDaughter Trends Worldwide After PM Modi’s Mann ki Baat”. NDTV. Retrieved 1 July 2015.

 

 

 

Anganwadi Services Scheme Under Umbrella ICDS

Blog By-

Neeraj Singh Manhas

Ph.D. Research Scholar

International Relations

Department of Political Science

Sardar Patel University, Gujarat 

Abstract

This paper will be useful to policymakers, planners, training institutions, state government officials, and field functionaries who are committed to improving nutrition and health outcomes for women and children in our country. The Anganwadi Services Scheme (renamed ICDS) was piloted in 33 Community Development Blocks across our country to improve children’s nutrition and health; reduce morbidity, mortality, malnutrition, and school dropout among children and women; achieve effective coordination with allied departments for nutrition outcomes; and improve mothers’ and caregivers’ understanding of nutrition. It is an effort to report state government best practices/initiatives for wider dissemination among Anganwadi service providers under the ICDS umbrella so that they can learn, develop, and adapt replication techniques in their respective contexts. It would also enable them to carry out activities based on feedback, reflection, and analysis, resulting in more effective long-term nutrition programmes.

Keywords: Umbrella, ICDS, Anganwadi, Government, Services

Introduction

As the Anganwadi Services Scheme has evolved over time, there have been numerous examples of innovative and effective models established by state governments that have produced positive results and have the potential to be scaled up. Other states could pilot or scale up additional ideas, such as graded best practices/potential good practises. The ICDS would enable state/UT governments to launch novel initiatives that have been shown to improve the availability, accessibility, and quality Replicable and sustainable (capability to self-support), they contribute to the initiative’s efficiency (optimal use of resources to improve outputs and outcomes), and they increase effectiveness (that is, its contribution to the achievement of the set objectives of the scheme in which the practise occurs).

Best practises are successful public policies that should be expanded to benefit a larger number of people. Expansion and institutionalisation of tried-and-true best practises necessitate strategy. In the Anganwadi Services sector, individuals, organisations, corporations, and development partners are taking innovative steps to improve nutrition and health outcomes. Spreading awareness of such procedures may aid in avoiding costly errors and wasting time. That is why documenting and sharing “best practises” is critical: it saves policymakers, officials, individuals, and organisations working in the Anganwadi Services sector time and money. To achieve large-scale, ongoing, and more successful interventions, knowledge of lessons learned, feedback, reflection, and analysis are required. To identify best practises, first analyse them according to the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, sustainability, and replication. To be useful in development, a best practise does not have to meet all of the above criteria. A best practise is a methodology or procedure that has been demonstrated to work consistently through experience and research. These methods must be shared and adopted by a larger number of people.

Vision

Under the umbrella of Integrated Child Development Services, the vision is to ensure the holistic physical, psychosocial, cognitive and emotional development of children under the age of six in child-friendly and gender-sensitive family, community, programme and policy environments with a particular focus on children under the age of three.

Goals

The scheme’s objectives are:

  1. It is important to recognise that growth and development deficits are cumulative and irreversible.
  2. Targeting young children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers to improve child survival, nutrition, development, and learning.
  3. Children’s full development potential and active learning capacity are enabled when early childhood development is holistically addressed.
  4. Extending the Centre’s reach to families and communities, recognising the need for service providers and volunteers to reach the most vulnerable age groups and communities.
  5. Encouraging local innovation and capacity building through decentralisation, flexibility, and community-based child care approaches.
  6. The most vulnerable and disadvantaged community groups (scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, minorities, etc.) must be reached.
  7. Strengthening convergence to address the interrelated needs of young children, girls, and women.
  8. A rights-based approach with women’s empowerment as a social quality mover.
  9. The ICDS Universalisation with Quality: Moving from Outlays to Child Related Outcomes.
  10. Securing good governance, accountability and community involvement.

Services

The Anganwadi Services package includes the following six services:

  1. Supplementary Nutrition (SNP),
  2. Pre-school Non-formal Education,
  3. Nutrition & Health Education,
  4. lmmunization,
  5. Health Check-up, and
  6. Referral Services

The ICDS and Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme are becoming more closely aligned

MGNREGS and ICDS have been working together to build Anganwadi Centres in 2,534 backward blocks since 2015. 50, 000 AWCs are issued each year, with a total of 2 lakh AWCs issued by 2019. The objectives are to construct Pucca buildings for Anganwadis in 2,534 blocks, to serve the objectives of pre-school education, nutrition centres, semi-formal public health units, as well as community centres, to create long-term assets and improve village infrastructure, and also provide a creche facility for MGNREGS workers.

POSHAN Abhiyan (Prime Minister’s Comprehensive Nutrition Plan)

The first 1000 days of a child’s life are critical, including nine months of pregnancy, six months of exclusive breastfeeding, and six months to two years of treatment for malnutrition. In addition to increasing birth weight, timely intervention can help reduce infant and maternal mortality (MMR). An additional year of consistent intervention (until the child is three years old) would ensure that the gains of the first 1000 days are maintained. The Aanganwadi Centers should also prioritise the development of children aged three to six years (AWCs). The Mission’s goal is to reduce undernutrition and other related issues by coordinating a variety of nutrition-related programmes.

The Mission is to ensure that all MWCD nutrition programmes are directed at the same population. The NNM will ensure the convergence of various programmes such as Anganwadi Services, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, the MWCD Scheme for Adolescent Girls, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), the MoH&FW National Health Mission (NHM), the DW&S Swachh Bharat Mission, the CAF&PD Public Distribution System (PDS), and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).

National Nutrition Mission

It was implemented in 315 common districts identified in descending order of stunting prevalence from among 201 districts identified by NITI Aayog based on National Family Health Survey -4 data, 162 ISSNIP districts, and 106 Scheme for Adolescent Girls districts in 2017-18. 235 districts were established in fiscal year 2018-19 based on the status of undernutrition in various states/UTs based on the prevalence of stunting. In 2019-2020, the remaining districts will be covered. This program’s objectives are to –

  1. Prevent and reduce stunting in children (0- 6years) at a rate of 2% per year;
  2. Prevent and reduce under-nutrition (underweight prevalence) in children (0- 6years) at a rate of 2% per year;
  3. Reduce low birth weight (LBW) at a rate of 2% per year;
  4. Reduce the prevalence of Anaemia amongst young children (06-59months) at a rate of 3% per year; and
  5. Reduce the prevalence of Anaemia

Pictorial Handbook for Quality ECCE

The National ECCE Policy has been released by the Ministry of Women and Child Development of the Government of India. The Ministry has created a Quality Standards Framework for ECCE in order to improve infrastructure and service standards, care quality, stimulation, and learning. The framework identifies key principles, indicators, and best practises for ensuring the quality of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) services. Pictorial Handbook on Quality in Early Childhood Education- expands on the Policy’s vision of quality. It depicts various aspects of quality through images, provides glimpses of good practises in various dimensions of quality, and attempts to create a shared understanding of quality among people at all levels, from national-level functionaries to Anganwadi Workers/ECCE teachers/caregivers. It is a practitioner tool for use in ECCE centres by ECCE teachers/caregivers.

Given our country’s diversity in terms of geographical locations, demography, as well as the nature of ECCE programmes and services, this was not possible to cover the entire spectrum in this handbook. It is an attempt to represent some acceptable practises demonstrating various aspects of quality. This Pictorial Handbook on Quality in Early Childhood Education will assist ECCE teachers/caregivers, one‘s supervisors, Program Managers, mentors, and trainers in achieving a high level of quality in early childhood programmes across the country.

Conclusion

Collaboration as well as convergence with various departments but also development partners have the potential to improve health services for malnourished women and children. Decentralizing the planning and management of the Anganwadi Services Scheme under the Umbrella ICDS allows States/UT Governments to break away from routine activities and explore potential for new innovations based on local demands. When combined with scientific demands, the innovations would undoubtedly pave the way for replication to be scaled up in other states. Secondary source knowledge on innovation and best practises in Anganwadi Services is abundant, and it has had a significant impact on malnutrition reduction and child care promotion in many states. Some of the innovations may well have a long-term impact if they are implemented in a systematic manner. State/UT governments will be encouraged to conduct need assessments of vulnerable populations and to evaluate innovations/best practises that will produce evidence-based analysis is to improve child development outcomes.

 

 

Endnotes and References

  1. “India’s Under-5 Mortality Now Matches Global Average, But Bangladesh, Nepal Do Better”. 20 September 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  2. ^Jump up to: a b “UNICEF – Respecting the rights of the Indian child”. UNICEF. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  3. ^Kapil U (July 2002). “Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme: a program for holistic development of children in India”. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 69 (7): 597–601. doi:1007/bf02722688. PMID 12173700.
  4. ^Jump up to: a b c d e Dhar A (27 January 2011). “Infant mortality rate shows decline”. The Hindu. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012.
  5. ^Jump up to: a b c “The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)”. UNICEF. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  6. ^Jump up to: a b “Supreme Court Commissioners”. sccommissioners.org. Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  7. ^“The WHO Child Growth Standards”. World Health Organisation. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  8. ^“Early childhood development and nutrition in India”. Oxford Policy Management. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 11 June2020.
  9. ^Kinra S, Rameshwar Sarma KV, Mendu VV, Ravikumar R, Mohan V, Wilkinson IB, et al. (July 2008). “Effect of integration of supplemental nutrition with public health programmes in pregnancy and early childhood on cardiovascular risk in rural Indian adolescents: long term follow-up of Hyderabad nutrition trial”.  337: a605. doi:10.1136/bmj.a605. PMC 2500199. PMID 18658189.
  10. ^Kinra S, Gregson J, Prabhakaran P, Gupta V, Walia GK, Bhogadi S, et al. (July 2020). “Effect of supplemental nutrition in pregnancy on offspring’s risk of cardiovascular disease in young adulthood: Long-term follow-up of a cluster trial from India”. PLoS Medicine. 17 (7): e1003183. doi:1371/journal.pmed.1003183. PMC 7373266. PMID 32692751.
  11. ^Nandi A, Behrman JR, Kinra S, Laxminarayan R (January 2018). “Early-Life Nutrition Is Associated Positively with Schooling and Labor Market Outcomes and Negatively with Marriage Rates at Age 20-25 Years: Evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) in India”. The Journal of Nutrition. 148 (1): 140–146. doi:1093/jn/nxx012. PMC 6289970. PMID 29378047.
  12. ^Nandi A, Behrman JB, Laxminarayan R (15 February 2019). “The Impact of a National Early Childhood Development Program on Future Schooling Attainment: Evidence from Integrated Child Development Services in India”. Economic Development and Cultural Change. 69 (1): 291–316. doi:1086/703078. ISSN 0013-0079.
  13. ^Nandi A, Ashok A, Kinra S, Behrman JR, Laxminarayan R (April 2015). “Early Childhood Nutrition Is Positively Associated with Adolescent Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the Andhra Pradesh Child and Parents Study (APCAPS)”. The Journal of Nutrition. 146 (4): 806–813. doi:3945/jn.115.223198. PMC 4807645. PMID 26962175.
  14. ^“CHAPTER 2 THE INTEGRATED CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES PROGRAM (ICDS) – ARE RESULTS MEETING EXPECTATIONS?” (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 22 March 2011.

Gender Equality and Positive Discrimination with regards to Article 15(3) of Indian Constitution

Blog By-

Lipika Gupta

Abstract

Under this article, the state has been empowered to make special provisions for Women and Children.  Under this article, the court had upheld the validity of legislation or executive orders discriminating in favour of women. This Article states that, even though the state wouldn’t discriminate anyone on the basis mentioned in Art 15(1), yet they have the whole authority to make special provisions in order to protect the interests of Women and Children. Women should be provided equality in every field whether its education or about equal salary. In the below article you will get to know about the significance and necessity of gender equality and positive discrimination under Article 15(3). There are many issues from which women and children deal in their day to day life so I have discussed my views and a data analysis which proves that strict laws should be implemented to protect women and children.

Introduction:

Under Article 15(3), the State is provided with the power to make special provision for women and children. In pre-independence India, especially with women and children, it was often seen that they were seen and deemed inferior to men. It can be said that these provisions are meant for the upliftment of women and children of the society which have been downtrodden/poor state for many years. Article 15 is all about equality and eradicating discrimination. This Article not only grants gender equality but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women and children for neutralizing the cumulative socio economic, education and political disadvantages faced by them. There are also numerous legislations that have specific provisions to address women and their interests thereby providing a strong legislative basis for gender justice in India. Some of these are ESI Act[1], MB Act[2], Women constitute the majority of the world’s population, but there is still no society in which women enjoy full equality with men. They often face specific discrimination, even in countries which grant legal equality to both sexes; women are often economically disadvantaged and suffer discrimination. The ‘special provisions’ which the State may make to improve women’s participation in all activities under the supervision and control of the state, can be in the form of affirmative action or reservation. The State can reserve seats for ST, SC, OBC3 in educational institutions, grant fee concessions or arrange special coaching classes. The States started the provision of reservations for ST, SC & OBC because in pre- independence and also after the independence these sections of the society were not provided with many facilities like education, proper nutrition, etc. To uplift them government decided to reserve seats under Article 15 so that they can also get equal opportunities like others.

  • Case law: In Case “Yusuf Abdul Aziz v/s State of Bombay”[3]the judgement was passed by the court which stated under Sec 497 of IPC only men can commit the crime of adultery and be punished for the same. The court had also stated that women shall not be punished as an abettor, as this would offend Art 14 and 15(3). The court had stated that since art 15(3) is a special provision made for women by the state therefore the woman was saved under this article. However, recently in “Joseph Shine v/s Union of India”[4]. Adultery was decriminalized since it was violating Art 14, 15 and 21 of Indian Constitution. Hence it is no longer treated as a crime, rather it can only act as a reason for divorce.
  • Why gender equality is important?

Gender equality is when people of all genders have equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities. Everyone is affected by gender inequality – women, men, trans and gender diverse people, children and families. It impacts people of all ages and backgrounds. Gender equality prevents violence against women and girls. It’s essential for economic prosperity. Societies that value women and men as equal are safer and healthier. We can say that gender equality is an important aspect of Article 15(3). The main issues that come in the way of gender equality are listed below:

  1. Gender bias in education- There are many ways that girls’ educationbenefits economies and societies. Yet an estimated 130 million girls will never set foot inside a classroom. Child marriage, lack of adequate sanitation (especially for girls who are of menstruating age), and gendered violence in the classroom are some of the obstacles specific to girls when it comes to this very basic human right. To prevent this government came up with many schemes like ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’[5] which encouraged many women for getting a better education.
  2. Unequal pay- The another problem faced by women’s in workplace is unequal pay which means that women’s get lesser amount of salary as compared to men just because of gender inequality which is not at all fair so government made principle of ‘Equal Pay for Equal Work’ which was first considered in Kishori Mohanlal Bakshi v. Union of India[6]in the year 1962.
  3. Sexual harassment- An obstacle that many women face in the workforce is sexual harassment. While the #MeToo[7] movement has helped to shed light on the issue, little had been known, until now, about how many women are subjected to this type of mistreatment. The matter was first analysed in case ofVishakha and Ors. v. State of Rajasthan and Ors[8] which led to the implementation of the sexual harassment of women at workplace[9].

  • Is positive discrimination ethical?

Positive discrimination is the policy of granting special privileges to the downtrodden and the underprivileged sections of the society, most commonly women. These are affirmative action programs, most visible in both the United States and India, where there has been a history of racial and caste discrimination. The practice is most prominent in India, where it has been enshrined in the constitution and institutionalized. The Constitution of Independent India which largely followed the pattern of the Government of India Act, 1935, made provisions for positive discrimination in favour of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs & STs) which constituted about 23% of the divided India’s population as they were oppressed section of the society so the government of India decided to uplift them by making some special laws which comes under Article 15(3) and considered as Positive Discrimination.[10]

Statical analysis: According to the survey of 20 people of different age group with a set of questionnaires I found that 85% people believe that Article 15 (3) help in the upliftment of women and children as well as provides gender equality whereas 15% people couldn’t decide whether this Article helps or not as many women were not aware of their rights made for their betterment in the society. Another question comes whether this Article provides positive or negative discrimination and here 80% people think its positive discrimination and 10% people think its negative discrimination as they say that why laws should be made only for women and children as compared to men but its high time to understand that women and children are still oppressed in some parts of the society which needs to be stop now where 70% people says that its correct to make special laws for women & children and on the other hand 10% people say its incorrect to provide special privileges to them where 20% people says may be its incorrect just because they don’t know the importance of making such laws. 55% people believe that many provisions came under this article made it easier for women to work freely and independently whereas 45% people believes that it still need some improvements so that women can work in a healthy environment and contribute to the country economically too in a much better way. A very important question came to my mind that why discrimination like gender inequality still takes place at an alarming rate and the responses are like 25% people said that it still happens because of the improper implementation of laws, 45% people said that it happen because of strict laws which I personally feel that it’s a big reason for this happenings , 20% of them said that women were not aware of such laws through which they can protect themselves and 10% people can’t answer it as they don’t know the main issue that women go through in not so developed areas. All of them think that in India still in some areas the State lacks in providing equality, freedom and indiscrimination among men, women & children because of improper implementation of strict laws and rules. 90% of them agreed on that this Article promote and provide equal opportunities to all but they also think that the article also need more attention and improvement whereas 10% of them didn’t agreed on it. These people also shared their views which were listed below:

  • Indian already have many useful laws but are neglected by the people of India they should be given bit more attention and many more laws are needed to empower women and children, especially in rural areas. I personally think that’s the place where most of the discrimination happens and women’s don’t get equal respect as men. Some laws should be made to open up the narrow mind of society.
  • Article 15 must be known to everyone and it must follow certain strict rules and regulations to protect the rights and freedom of people and person’s equality must not be denied.
  • Despite of implementation of law, the states still discriminates people and regard them as SC/ST, OBC, general and others. The centre provides reservation to SC/ST which discriminates towards generals. As they have been uplifted now so the reservation system should get a break and equality should be provided to everyone. Women’s safety can be enhanced by improving hygiene issues and sex education among the teenagers.
  • Strict laws should be applicable for women and children security and strict actions should be taken those who try to break it.

Conclusion-

Article 15 has always hurdled its way out to reach to the one really in need. The condition of the downtrodden has highly improved since its inception in 1949. It provides a base to each and everything that legislature needs to formulate provisions to promote harmony in the society. There is an extreme decline in the number of cases of atrocities against the underprivileged classes. Article 15 truly is the guardian of downtrodden and a shield against discrimination, it has helped the Indian society to stand tall and proud despite such a huge diversity and all kinds of sexism, racism and rigid caste system and will continue to contribute to India’s unity and equality, forever. It helped in the improvisation of women and children but still need some strict laws and amendments to make India free from discrimination and inequality in rural areas.

[1] The Employees State Insurance Act,1948

[2] The Maternity Benefit Act,1961

3 Schedule Tribes, Schedule Caste, Other Backward Classes

[3] Yusuf Abdul Aziz v. State of Bombay, 1954 ,A.I.R 321, SCR 930

[4] Joseph Shine v. Union of India, 2018 SCC Online, SC 1676

[5] https://www.news18.com/news/partner-content/government-schemes-and-policies-for-girl-child-empowerment-2275341.html

[6]  Kishori Lal Mohan Lal Bakshi v. Union of India, A.I.R. 1962 S.C. 1139  http://www.companyliquidator.gov.in/12/jud_sc/OFFICIAL%20LIQUIDATOR%20VS.%20DAYANAND.pdf

[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Me_Too_movement

[8] Vishakha and ors. v. State of Rajasthan and ors., A.I.R 1997 SC 3011.  

[9] The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 ,  https://en.wikipedia.org

[10] http://www.legalservicesindia.com/

विधि सेवा एवं सामाजिक उत्थान समिति द्वारा उत्तराखंड स्थापना दिवस पर वर्चुअल बैठक का आयोजन किया गया। बैठक की अध्यक्षता समिति के अध्यक्ष मोहम्मद राशिद अली ने की, संचालन समिति के सचिव दिव्यांशु नौटियाल ने कीया, और डॉ योगेश धस्माना जी ने बैठक में विशेषज्ञ के तौर पर अपनी उपस्थिति दर्ज कराई। डॉ योगेश धस्माना जी ने राज्य के लिए हुए आंदोलन से लेकर वर्तमान में चल रही परिस्थितियों पर प्रकाश डालते हुए बैठक का मार्गदर्शन किया। समिति के अध्यक्ष व सचिव ने उनका आभार व्यक्त किया के उन्होंने अपने कीमती समय निकाल कर बैठक का मार्गदर्शन किया। कार्यक्रम में संस्था के अध्यक्ष मोहम्मद राशिद अली, उपाध्यक्ष मोनिका नेगी, सचिव दिव्यांशु नौटियाल, कोषाध्यक्ष मोहम्मद तासीर अली, आशुतोष लाम्बा, अविरल सक्सेना, राधिका धस्माना, तय्यबा प्रवीन, शीबा कुरैशी, मोहम्मदी, प्रियंका सिंह, रितिक अग्रवाल आदि मौजूद रहे।

विधि सेवा एवं सामाजिक उत्थान समिति द्वारा उत्तराखंड स्थापना दिवस सप्ताह एवं कोरोना योद्धाओं के सम्मान समारोह का आयोजन किया गया जिसमें पद्म भूषण डॉ अनिल जोशी जी मुख्य अतिथि के रूप में उपस्थित रहे। कार्यक्रम में श्री जगमोहन सिंह नेगी जी, अध्यक्ष, उत्तराखण्ड राज्य आंदोलनकारी मंच, श्री गणेश बड़थ्वाल जी, पूर्व पार्षद, श्री योगेश धस्माना जी, पूर्व समन्वयक, खेल एवं युवा मंत्रालय, ने विशिष्ट अतिथि के रूप में उपस्थित रहे। कार्यक्रम में श्री अनिल जोशी जी ने मानवों द्वारा प्रर्यावरण की दुर्गती करने से लेकर कोरोना महामारी के आने तक का संक्षिप्त रूप में अपने विचार प्रकट किए, श्री जगमोहन सिंह नेगी जी ने उत्तराखंड राज्य आंदोलन के इतिहास पर प्रकाश डाला, श्री योगेश धस्माना जी ने कोरोना काल में कैसे लोग अपने पुराने आयुर्वेदिक सिद्धांतो को अपना रहे हैं। कार्यक्रम में १०१ कोरोना योद्धाओं को सम्मानित किया गया। कार्यक्रम का संचालन श्री दीपक बड़थ्वाल जी के द्वारा किया गया। कार्यक्रम में संस्था के अध्यक्ष मोहम्मद राशिद अली जी ने कोरोना काल में सतर्कता बरतने पर ज़ोर दिया और सबको बधाई दी, सचिव दिव्यांशु नौटियाल जी ने समिति का विवरण दिया, कोषाध्यक्ष मोहम्मद तासीर अली,अविरल सक्सेना, राधिका धस्माना, शीबा कुरैशी, तयब्बा परवीन,  मोहम्मदी, अमन चौधरी, योगेश रावत, तनिष्क वेदवाल, रिशभ मेहरा, शशांक चौधरी, अंशुल रावत, आदित्य राणा आदि मौजूद रहे।

विधि सेवा एवं सामजिक उत्थान समिति द्वारा कोरोना योद्धा सम्मान समारोह का जैन भवन में आयोजन संपन्न कराया गया। कार्यक्रम के मुख्य अतिथि के तौर पर माननीय श्री न्यायधीश राजेश टंडन जी रहे और मानवाधिकार संगठन के चेयरमैन श्री सचिन जैन जी, मानवाधिकार संगठन की प्रदेश अध्यक्ष श्रीमती मधू जैन जी तथा श्री गणेश बर्थ्वाल पूर्व पार्षद जी विशिष्ट अतिथि के रूप में उपस्थित रहे। कार्यक्रम का मुख्य उद्देश्य कोरोना महामारी के दौरान समाज में सुव्यवस्था बनाए रखने में सुचारु रूप से समाज के कार्यो का निर्वाहन करने वाले व्यक्तियों को सम्मानित करना था। मुख्य रूप से कार्यक्रम में कोरोना सेंटर में तैनात कर्मी, पुलिस कर्मी, आशा कार्यकतृ, जिला विधिक सेवा प्राधिकरण के वॉलंटियर, आंगनवाड़ी कार्यकतृ, समाचार सम्पादक, नगर निगम सफाई करमचारी, राशन पूर्ति विभाग कर्मी, सामाजिक कार्यकर्ता आदि को सम्मानित किया गया। कार्यक्रम का संचालन समिति के सचिव श्री दिव्यांशु नौटियाल जी के द्वारा किया गया। कार्यक्रम में समिति के अध्यक्ष श्री मोहम्मद राशिद अली, कोषाध्यक्ष मोहम्मद तासीर अली, आशुतोष लाम्बा, सृष्टि तोमर, तय्यबा परवीन, शिवानी थापा, तानिया परवीन, विश्वंदेर नौटियाल आदि मौजूद रहे।

विधि सेवा एवं सामाजिक उत्थान समिति द्वारा स्वतंत्रता दिवस के मौके पर कार्यक्रम आयोजित कराया गया जिसमें माननीय न्यायाधीश श्री राजेश टंडन जी ने अपनी उपस्थिति दर्ज कराते हुए स्वतंत्र भारत में कैसे हमारे मानवाधिकार और संविधान लागू होने चाहिये और साथ ही सबको बधाई दी। इसके पश्चात अधिवक्ता श्री विनोद नौटियाल जी ने प्राचीन काल से कैसे भारत में स्वतंत्रता का जज़्बा कायम है और आज के समय में कैसे लोग स्वतंत्रता को गलत दिशा में ले जा रहे हैं, इसपर ध्यान आकर्षित किया और साथ ही सबको बधाई दी। इसके पश्चात कर्नल श्री जीवन छेत्री जी ने आत्मनिर्भर भारत बनने पर जोर दिया और बताया कैसे भारत इसके पथ पर अग्रसर है और सबको बधाई दी। अंत में कप्तान श्री पदम सिंह थापा जी ने इस दिन की महत्ता बताते हुए सबको बधाई दी। कार्यक्रम का संचालन श्री मोहम्मद राशिद अली जी के द्वारा किया गया। कार्यक्रम में संस्था के अध्यक्ष मोहम्मद राशिद अली, उपाध्यक्ष मोनिका नेगी, सचिव दिव्यांशु नौटियाल, कोषाध्यक्ष मोहम्मद तासीर अली, राधिका धस्माना, तय्यबा प्रवीन, आशुतोष लाम्बा आदि मौजूद रहे।

दिनाँक- 16 जुलाई, 2020 को हारेला पर्व पर विधि सेवा एवं सामाजिक उत्थान समिति द्वारा आयोजित वृक्ष रोपण

आज 16 जुलाई, 2020 को हरेला पर्व के अवसर पर विधि सेवा एवं सामाजिक उत्थान समिति द्वारा रेसकोर्स में वृक्षारोपण का कार्यक्रम आयोजित किया गया। जिसमें संस्था का प्रतिनिधित्व संस्था के अध्यक्ष श्री मोहम्मद राशिद अली जी के निर्देशानुसार सचिव श्री दिव्यांशु नौटियाल जी कर रहे थे। श्री राशिद अली जी की अनुपस्थिति में उन्होनें कार्यक्रम सफल होने की शुभकामनाएं दी और सभी को तहे दिल से धन्यवाद किया और अपने सुझाव देते हुए कहा कि यदि सभी हरेला दिवस तथा पर्यावरण दिवस के अलावा भी वृक्ष लगाए ओर साथ ही उनका ध्यान भी रखे ताकी पर्यावरण स्वास्थ रहे और मनुष्य जाती के साथ साथ पशु पक्षी को भी पर्यावरण का लाभ हो। उन्होने यह संदेश भी दिया कि जिस प्रकार एक मनुष्य अपने परिवार से प्रेम करते हुए उन्हे हर हानि तथा विनाश से उनकी रक्षा करता है, ठीक उसी प्रकार मनुष्य को पर्यावरण का भी ध्यान रखना चाहिये और विनाश से रक्षा करनी चाहिये। इसी के साथ अध्यक्ष श्री राशिद अली जी ने पुनः सबका धन्यवाद किया। इस कार्यक्रम को सफल बनाने के लिए हम श्री ईश मोहन भट्ट जी का धन्यवाद करते हैं जिनहोंने हमें अल्प समय में पेड़ मुहैय्या कराए। कार्यक्रम में त्रिलोक रावत, श्री शांतम भट्ट, श्री कमल कोठियाल, अमन चौधरी, आदि मौजूद रहे।

01 मार्च, 2020 को “उत्तराखंड राज्य महिला आयोग, देहरादून” द्वारा आयोजित पावर वॉक में “विधि सेवा एवं सामाजिक उत्थान समिति की हिस्सेदारी

राष्ट्रीय महिला आयोग के सौजन्य से उत्तराखंड राज्य महिला आयोग, देहरादून द्वारा आयोजित पावर वॉक में विधि सेवा एवं सामाजिक उत्थान समिति द्वारा हिस्सेदारी की गई। यह कार्यक्रम राज्य महिला आयोग की अध्यक्ष श्रीमती विजया बर्थ्वाल के नेतृत्व में किया गया। इस कार्यक्रम के दौरान विधि सेवा एवं सामाजिक उत्थान समिति के अध्यक्ष राशिद अली, कोषाध्यक्ष तासीर अली, राधिका धस्माना, आशुतोष लाम्बा, शीबा अंसारी,विश्वेन्द्र प्रसाद ,आफरीन अंसारीआदि मौजूद रहे।